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Molecular Testing of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Cervical Specimens
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Author : Faten Salah Gazzaz
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: 1. Abdu Dahab A and Al-Salih, A. An overview of cervical abnormalities at the maternity and children‘s hospital (Jeddah) over one year. Saudi journal of Obstetric and Gynecology 2002; 2: 143-148. 2. Abduljabbar HS. Abnormal cervical cytology, a preliminary report from western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 1990; 11:372-375. 3. Altaf F. Cervical cancer screening with pattern of Pap smear: Review of multicenter studies. Saudi Med J 2006; Vol. 27 (10): 1498-1502. 4. Altaf F. Pattern of cervical smear cytology in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine 2001; 21: 94-96. 5. Mansoor I. Profile of Cervical Smears Cytology in Western Region of Saudi Arabia. The Internet Journal of Pathology 2002; Volume 2, Number 1. 6. Jamal A, Al-Maghrabi J. Profile of Pap smear cytology in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2003; Vol.24 (11): 1225-1229. 7. Howaida A-E, Al-Ghamdi A-H and Al-Maghrabi J. Cytopathological pattern of cervical Pap smear according to the Bethesda system in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2005; Vol.26 (4): 588-592. 8. Walboomers JMM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J. Pathol 1999; 189:12-19. 9. Kulmala SM, S. Syrjänen S, Shabalova I, Petrovichev N, Kozachenko V, et al. Human papillomavirus testing with the hybrid capture 2 assay and PCR as screening tools. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42(6):2470-2475. 10. Saslow D, Runowicz CD, Solomon D, Moscicki AB, Smith RA, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of cervical neoplasia and cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52(6):342-362. 11. Clavel C, Masure M, Bory JP, Putaud I, Mangeonjean C, et al. Human papillomavirus testing in primary screening for the detection of high-grade cervical lesions: a study of 7932n women. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 84: 1616-1623. 12. Goodman A and Hutchinson ML. Cell surplus on sampling devices after routine cervical cytologic smears. A study of residual cell populations. J. Reprod Med 1996; 41 (4): 239-241. 13. Marion, D; Holmquist, CT; Keebler, CM and CFIAC, ScD. In: The Manual of cytotechnology. Keebler, CM and Somrak, TM. American Society of Clinical Pathologists. Publisher: Chicago: ASCP Press. Somrak, TM (Editor). Cytopreparatory Techniques 1993; 35:.412-448. 14. Clavel C, Masure M, Putaud I, Thomas K, and Bory JP et al. Hybrid Capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection: comparison with Hybrid Capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. J Clin Pathol 1998; 51:737-740. 15. Manos MM, Kinney WK, Hurley LB, Sherman ME, Shieh-Ngai J, Kurman RJ, Ransley J E, Fetterman B J, Hartinger JS, McIntosh KM, Pawlick GF and Hiatt RA. Identifying women with cervical neoplasia: Using human papillomavirus DNA testing for equivocal Papanicolaou results. Obstetrical & Gynaecological Survey 1999 September; 54(9):569-571. 16. Wright TC Jr, Cox JT, Massad LS, Twiggs LB and Wilkinson EJ. 2001 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities. JAMA 2002; 287: 2120-2129. 17. Raffle AE, Alden, B; Quinn, M; Babb, P J and Brett, M T. Outcomes of screening to prevent cancer: analysis of cumulative incidence of cervical abnormality and modelling of cases and deaths prevented. BMJ 2003 Apr 26; 326(7395):901-904. 18. Dominguez GM, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, Curiel A, Eiros JM, Moreno M, Labayru C, Ortega M, Hern?ndez B, Reguera JI and Rodriguez-Torres A. HPV diagnosis in the clinical setting. Correlation and discrepancies between molecular techniques. Rev Electron Biomed / Electron J Biomed 2005; 1:91-93. 19. Karisen F, Kristensen G, Holm R, Chitemerere M, Berner A and Hagmar BM. High incidence of human papillomavirus in 146 cervical carcinomas. A study using three different pairs of consensus primers, and detecting viral genomes with putative deletions. Eur J Cancer 1995; 31A: 1511-1516. 20. Schiecht NF, Trevisan A, Duarte-Franco E, Rohan TE, Ferenczy A, Villa LL and Franco EL. Viral load as a predictor of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Int. J. Cancer 2003; 103:519-524. 21. Syrjänen K and Syrjänen S (2000). Papillomavirus infections in human pathology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y. 22. Mao C, KoutskyL A, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, Brown DR and Wiley DJ. Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus-16 Vaccine to Prevent Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2006; 107:18-27. 23. Molijn A, Kleter B, Quint W and van Doorn LJ. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. J Clin Virol 2005; 32S:S43-S51. 24. Daniel RW, Ahdieh L, Hayden D, Cu-Uvin S and Shah KV. Intra-laboratory reproducibility of human papillomavirus identification in cervical specimens by a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. J Clin Virol 2000; 19:187-193.
: Objectives: to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of HPV in uterine cer
: Objectives: to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of HPV in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of human papillomavirus (HPV) by the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Methods: One hundred women were included in this study, mean age (mean ? SD) 41.97?8.76 range 27-65 years undergoing screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd Research Centre, Jeddah. Results: Results obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5 High-risk HPV (5.0%), 1 low–risk HPV (1.0%) and 94 negative cases (94.0%). PCR detected only 4 cases (4%). Using the HC2 test as a reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of Baseline Pap were 50%, 85%, 17.7%, 96.4% and 83%; of Final Pap smear were 100%, 96.8%, 66.7%, 100%, 97%, and for PCR were 66.7%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 97.9%, 98.0%, respectively. Pap test was repeated within a year for patients having abnormal Pap or negative Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Conclusion: Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing by both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. Absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening program and ensure that women with double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. - Slides
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